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Formula E | Jaguar I-TYPE 3

Formula E | Jaguar I-TYPE 3

14/12/2018, England, Motorsport - Road Racing, Racecar Engineering, Article # 28275307

The new Jaguar I-TYPE 3 will hit the track at the 1st round of the Formula E Championship. Discover the technical challenges of Season 5 in our January issue HERE with the technical highlights HERE

Jaguar Panasonic Racing launches their Jaguar I-TYPE 3

Put simply, Season 5 of Formula E is going to be fascinating. The entire grid will race with brand new Gen2 cars which are 25% more powerful than last season and most importantly feature batteries with 85% more usable energy. This means that drivers will no longer have to hop between cars at the pit stops because impressive developments in battery technology now mean that these electric racers can last the distance. Although that race distance is now a 45 min time limit rather than number of laps, which will revolutionise racing strategy – causing a major headache for the engineers, but hopefully fascinating racing for the fans.

‘That means from an energy management strategy point of view, you can’t simply set a number of laps, you have to be flexible and able to react to others around you,’ explains James Barclay, Team Director at Jaguar Panasonic Racing. ‘There could be a safety car or full course yellows right up until the end of the last few laps and if you don’t have enough energy to last, then your race is over. It is going to be incredibly complex.’

Jaguar_I-TYPE_3_Launch_2
The Jaguar I-TYPE 3 features 800 new parts as well as an in-house developed powertrain including the MGU, inverters, motor control unit and control systems. CREDIT: Jaguar Panasonic Racing

Add to this the increased power in conjunction with the new power modes and the challenge of winning races is going to be even harder. Last season, teams were allowed to run with 200kW of power from the motors, and that has increased to 250kW for this season. Available power has also stepped up for the race, moving from 180kW to 200kW. Fanboost increases this by an extra 25kW and a new ‘attack mode’ has been introduced for this season, adding a further 25kW so if a team gets extremely lucky they have the potential to race with a maximum of 250kW. You’ll be able to spot the power modes of each car by coloured lights on the Halo – which is another new addition for the Gen2 car.

The second Season 5 car to be launched so far this year was that of Jaguar Panasonic Racing as they revealed their stunning Jaguar I-TYPE 3 at the London Design Museum. ‘This is our third generation of powertrain but this is the first generation where we have developed it entirely in-house,’ explains Craig Wilson, Race Director at Jaguar Panasonic Racing. ‘That includes the motor generator unit, the inverter, the motor control unit as well as the control systems. Everything was done in-house which gave us the ability to package everything how we wanted and to gain performance through the weight, centre of gravity and other aspects.’

Exploded_Jaguar_I-TYPE 3
CREDIT: Jaguar Panasonic Racing

In addition to the brand new Gen2 car supplied by SPARK, Jaguar have taken it a step further by developing new parts wherever they can. ‘There are in excess of 800 new parts in this car so it really is a completely new car for us,’ highlights Wilson.

Other technical highlights include the use of silicon carbide control chip modules which allows the Jaguar I-TYPE 3 to switch frequencies extremely quickly as well as control temperatures and improve reliability. ‘It is a very efficient device which is important because you don’t want to lose any efficiency through the electrical systems when you are converting DC power from the battery to AC power for the motor,’ says Wilson. ‘Silicon carbide is a very rare type of mineral that is plentiful in space as space dust.’ Who knew?

The Gen2 cars weigh in at approximately 900Kg, which is 100Kg more than last season, with the batteries from McLaren Applied Technologies 47Kg heavier at 389Kg than the Williams predecessors. Brake by wire will also be featured on these cars and will arguably be the most important tool for teams to tune trackside to try and gain that all important advantage.

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The Tech behind the Bloodhound SSC

The Tech behind the Bloodhound SSC

09/12/2018, England, Motorsport - Road Racing, Racecar Engineering, Article # 28254013

The Bloodhound SSC Land Speed Record car that was set to break the 1,000mph barrier has now sadly entered administration. Racecar delves into the tech behind this monster, with a full technical analysis in our 2018 January issue HERE.

The tech highlights of the Bloodhound SSC

Speed

  • At 1,000mph the wheels will be spinning at 10,200rpm (170 times per second) four times faster than those on a Formula 1 car, which will generate approximately 50,000 radial g.
  • The Bloodhound SSC record attempt will be the first land-based vehicle in history to travel above the speed of sound for a sustained period of time.

Aerodynamics

  • The shape of the car has been designed to be Mach number insensitive to ensure it remains stable at 1,000mph or Mach 1.3.
  • No wind tunnel goes to 1,000mph with a moving ground plane even with scale effects. Therefore, the team had to use a rocket sled instead which moved the object through the air, rather than the air over the object.
  • The team used 200 rockets to complete 13 runs of the sled to verify the CFD.

Bloodhound_SSC

Power

  • The total thrust required to get to 1,000mph is 20 tonnes.
  • This phenomenal amount of power is provided from a Eurojet EJ200 jet engine as well as 3 rockets.

Stopping

  • To achieve a valid record attempt the FIA rules state that the vehicle needs to go through the measured mile in both directions within 1 hour.
  • Therefore, the car needs to complete a pitstop at the end of the first run. So, after hitting 1,000mph, the car has to decelerate and stop, which usually takes over 5.5miles, turn round and refuel.
  • It takes airbrakes, 2 parachutes and wheel brakes to stop the car.

Bloodhound_SSC_3

Fuel

  • The Auxiliary power unit drives the rocket oxidiser pump which supplies 800 litres of high test peroxise to the rocket at 76bar (1,000psi) in just 20 seconds.
  • This is equivalent to 40 litres (or 9 gallons) per second.
  • This auxilliary power unit is a 55bhp Jaguar supercharged V8 engine.

The car has already completed a 200mph shakedown test run at Newquay airport in the UK last October. But to get this machine to 1,000mph requires some additional technology and another quarter of a million funding. If that money comes through then we could all still witness the Bloodhound SSC become the world’s fastest land speed vehicle.  

The Bloodhound SSC is not just about breaking the land speed record though, this fascinating project has played a key role in getting the next generation excited about engineering – an industry which is crying out for an influx of new brains and fresh ideas. We can only hope that someone with deep pockets will come and save the day.

Keep up to date with all the latest motorsport technology with a Racecar Engineering subscription

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January 2019 issue out now!

January 2019 issue out now!

07/12/2018, England, Motorsport - Road Racing, Racecar Engineering, Article # 28246820

January_2019_CoverOur January 2019 issue features Formula E, IndyCar, F1 2019, How to run a Wind Tunnel session, a Strategy Masterclass and much more.

 

 Get yours HERE!

 

   


Inside the January edition:

DS_Virgin_Gen2_CarFormula E’s Season 5 is set to be a thriller with new cars, new tech and a new way of racing. Battery energy capacity has almost doubled so no more car-swaps, while the races are now time-limited to 45 minutes. Also new for this season is brake by wire, Attack Mode, more power, the Halo and revolutionary aerodynamics. Racecar Engineering reveals all.

IndyCar_CFDAlso in this issue, we delve into the CFD behind IndyCar, discuss F1’s 2019 regulations and discover the whacky world of Drag Racing. Meanwhile our resident Aerodynamicist, Simon McBeath, reveals the secrets of running a successful Wind Tunnel session and Ricardo Divila gives us a masterclass on race strategy.


January 2019 issue

Buy now

Print only £6.95

Digital only £5.95


 Subscriptions

Click here for information about our latest subscription offers.

 

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WEC | 2020 Hypercar Regulations

WEC | 2020 Hypercar Regulations

07/12/2018, England, Motorsport - Road Racing, Racecar Engineering, Article # 28243260

The new Hypercar regulations have been approved for 2020/2021. Below are the most important things you need to know, with a full technical analysis in our February issue (on sale in January).

What you need to know about the 2020 Hypercar regulations

The FIA and ACO have announced their new regulations for the 2020 Hypercar concepts, having negotiated with Toyota, Aston Martin, Ferrari, Ford, and others, suspected to include Peugeot, before finalising their proposal. The regulations were presented to the FIA World Motorsport Council in November, and the plan was voted through in December.

1. Limited tech

The highlights are that the 2020 Hypercar regulations have necessarily limited technology and development, included Formula 1-style weight distribution limits (48.5 per cent front +/-15 percent), and taken away much of what made the current LMP1 cars the high-tech laboratories that the ACO and fans so craved. The only ones who didn’t like it were the accountants, and they held sway.

2. Powertrain

Gone from the regulations is diesel. Internal combustion engines remain as four-stroke only, but the interesting bit is that 25 power units, including the MGU-K, must be presented to the FIA and installed in production cars by the end of year 1, with 100 production cars produced by the second year of competition. 

There are performance losses too; interlinked suspension systems are banned, brake by wire is to the front axle only, BSFC is set high, maximum speed of the MGU is limited to 25,000rpm, weight is increased to 1040kg to avoid the use of exotic materials. The engine production engine is limited to 180kg, -10% maximum for the racing version.

3. Chassis

Cockpit width has increased from 1900mm to 2000mm, and the passenger compartment must be at least 90 per cent of the driver side. With a frontal area of 1.8m2, the cars will be bigger in size, and so that rules out completely the current breed of LMP1 cars. Teams who have invested in BR Engineering’s BR1, or ORECA’s RB13, will either have to scrap that investment, or be allowed to race in a separate, slower class and are awaiting a decision from the FIA on what the future holds for their investment.

Ultimately, this was a set of regulations designed to get the ball rolling. There is a lot of detail in there, enough for those involved in the meetings to give their board of directors, the decision makers. Should they agree, and sign up, they will have more influence as the regulations are refined further.

4. Success?

The target lap time at Le Mans has dropped significantly, and rightly so. The track could not cope with the speeds of the LMP1 cars, and it took almost 50 years for cars to reach lap times of 3m14s once again following regulation changes and track changes. There was, in my opinion, no logic to having such speeds as a starting point for these regulations.

The success or otherwise of this set of regulations will depend on who commits. Manufacturers have sat around the table and debated, the FIA and ACO have delivered, and are selling to other manufacturers.

5. Killing GTE?

One concern is, if this succeeds, what is the future for of GTE? The bodies have gone to Porsche and Aston Martin, Ferrari and BMW, and likely to Corvette too, and tried to sell them this hyper car concept.

They could be in danger of killing the GTE class, which would explain why Lamborghini and McLaren stepped away from their advanced planning stages of their GTE programmes. Who will commit? No one knows, but they have to make their decision quickly to be ready for August or September 2020. If they haven’t already started, they will be up against the clock although it is understood that the FIA and ACO will give dispensation to manufacturers who are not ready for the start of the season.

A full technical analysis of the LMP1 regulations will be in the forthcoming edition of Racecar Engineering, due out in January.

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F1 | 2021 Unlimited CFD

F1 | 2021 Unlimited CFD

07/12/2018, England, Motorsport - Road Racing, Racecar Engineering, Article # 28243003

The decisions from the latest World Motorsport Council are out with significant implications for the F1 2021 CFD regulations. But what does this actually mean?

Unlimited CFD for F1 2021

The World Motorsport Council met on the 5thof December in Saint Petersburg, Russia to discuss the regulation changes for all the FIA Championships. One of the most interesting conclusions were the changes to the 2019 Sporting regulations allowing: 

‘Unrestricted CFD simulations to be carried out for the development of cars in accordance with the 2021 regulations.’

Considering the FIA have implemented a complex array of formulas and regulations to restrict the amount of Aerodynamic testing that the teams can complete (check out how much CFD teams can currently run HERE), this is a big surprise…or is it?

The Formula One world has been promised more overtaking in 2021. Arguably the most effective way of implementing that is modifying the aerodynamics, a taster of which we will see in 2019, explained HERE. Therefore, it is not surprising that at this initial stage, FOM is turning to the teams to help the aero development for 2021 and could be the reason behind the regulation change.

F1_CFD_2018_Car_Front
CREDIT: SimScale

Something may well have been agreed to allow the larger teams with more CFD resource to evaluate the 2021 concepts from FOM, without compromising their current car development. These results should then be shared between the teams to enable evaluation of the different concepts, giving the FIA and FOM a much bigger data set on which to base their final decision.

You may worry that this suggests that FOM is unclear of the direction they want to take the 2021 regulations. However, this suggests collaboration with the teams and that F1 are really doing their homework. Having previously used Esports as a platform to experiment with different racing concepts, and now allowing the teams to run as much CFD as they want shows a dedication to establishing a set of 2021 regulations that are backed by theory and research, which can only be a positive.

Of course, there is no such thing as a free lunch, so I’m sure this change is accompanied by a long list of terms and conditions.  

In reality, as the 2021 regulations are not yet defined it is unlikely that the big teams will invest a huge amount of time into these simulations (particularly if they are to be shared with everyone else). Most likely they will run them as lower priority cases as and when their CFD cluster has the capacity to do so.

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January 2019 issue out now!

January 2019 issue out now!

06/12/2018, England, Motorsport - Road Racing, Racecar Engineering, Article # 28246772

January_2019_CoverOur January 2019 issue features Formula E, IndyCar, F1 2019, How to run a Wind Tunnel session, a Strategy Masterclass and much more.

 

 Get yours HERE!

 

   


Inside the January edition:

DS_Virgin_Gen2_CarFormula E’s Season 5 is set to be a thriller with new cars, new tech and a new way of racing. Battery energy capacity has almost doubled so no more car-swaps, while the races are now time-limited to 45 minutes. Also new for this season is brake by wire, Attack Mode, more power, the Halo and revolutionary aerodynamics. Racecar Engineering reveals all.

IndyCar_CFDAlso in this issue, we delve into the CFD behind IndyCar, discuss F1’s 2019 regulations and discover the whacky world of Drag Racing. Meanwhile our resident Aerodynamicist, Simon McBeath, reveals the secrets of running a successful Wind Tunnel session and Ricardo Divila gives us a masterclass on race strategy.


January 2019 issue

Buy now

Print only £6.95

Digital only £5.95


 Subscriptions

Click here for information about our latest subscription offers.

 

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http://www.racecar-engineering.com/latestissue/january-2019-issue-out-now/
Formula E | 5 facts about Season 5

Formula E | 5 facts about Season 5

04/12/2018, England, Motorsport - Road Racing, Racecar Engineering, Article # 28227491

5 facts you need to know about Formula E Season 5

Formula E will be entering Season 5 with 22 brand new cars, 11 teams, 7 manufacturers, 12 venues and an impressive driver line-up – but what do you REALLY need to know about Season 5?

Gen2_Jaguar_Exploded_View
CREDIT: Panasonic Jaguar Racing
  1. 1 race 1 battery

The battery of the new Gen2 car now has almost double the energy capacity at 52kWh and 85% more usable energy. So, one battery can now do the entire race meaning no more mid-race car-swaps. This will emphasise a driver’s skill in managing the tyre and brake temperatures to last the whole race.

  1. Timed races

Races are no longer distance-based and are instead 45 minutes long plus one lap. This means that the energy saved during full course yellows or safety car periods can be used to go faster towards the end of the race = more exciting racing.

‘This means that there is a moving target on the lap number, which is based on the lead car or expected lead car’s pace,’ explains Phil Charles, Technical Manager at Panasonic Jaguar Racing. ‘It also means that the engineers will need to constantly recalculate energy targets based on the expected number of laps remaining to complete. Therefore, there will still be a significant strategic aspect for the fans to follow as the drivers will still need to manage their energy and power levels to succeed.’

DS_Virgin_Gen2_Car
CREDIT: Envision Virgin Racing
  1. More power

Not only has maximum race power increased from 180kW to 200kW, but qualifying modes have gone from 200kW to 250kW. Similar to last season, Fanboost will give 100kJ of energy to a driver voted for by the fans while Season 5 will also have Attack Mode which allows drivers to engage 225kW up to a total of 8 minutes. The new race modes, Fanboost and Attack Mode now means that drivers could race with a total power of 250kW.

Attack Mode also adds another strategic element because drivers have to pass through a defined activation zone which is off the racing line and so they will initially lose time. However, the immediate power boost will help them to overtake – but when and where should a driver activate their Attack Mode for maximum benefit?

  1. Brake by Wire

The new Season 5 cars will feature brake by wire on the rear axle. This means that the rear hydraulic brakes are only needed at the beginning of the race, when the battery is fully charged (as there can be no braking through regeneration). After several laps, when the battery needs recharging, the cars brake entirely through regeneration so the rear brakes aren’t actually needed at all.

  1. Motors

Since Season 2, the teams have been developing the electric motors and inverter and are now extremely close to achieving 100% efficiency which means most cars are running single speed gearboxes. The trick now is to be able to operate at that high level of efficiency for the majority of the time.  

Overall Season 5 is set to be a thriller with new tech, new cars and a new way of racing. Check out the full Season 5 preview in our January issue by subscribing to Racecar Engineering HERE.

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Motorsport Regulations

Motorsport Regulations

29/11/2018, England, Motorsport - Road Racing, Racecar Engineering, Article # 28196879

Motorsport Regulations

Welcome to the Motorsport Regulations page. Click on the links below to find the latest Sporting and Technical regulations for a wide variety of motorsport categories.

Formula Racing

GT

Prototype

Rally

Rallycross

Touring

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Tech Explained | 2018 F1 CFD regulations

Tech Explained | 2018 F1 CFD regulations

28/11/2018, England, Motorsport - Road Racing, Racecar Engineering, Article # 28182473

2018 F1 CFD regulations

Did you know that 2018 marked one of the most significant changes in F1 CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) regulations in recent years? Read on…

The battles in Formula 1 are not just fought out at the track, but back at the factories too. These conflicts usually surround new regulations which the FIA introduce to try and reduce costs. However, this results in the teams investing their money elsewhere – typically within the loop holes of those new rules. This then forces the FIA to react with new regulations and this never-ending circle continues – welcome to the game of F1.

A prime example of this is the FIA’s attempt to restrict wind tunnel and CFD testing – something they have been trying to achieve since 2009. However, every limit that is introduced simply triggers the teams to find new ways of maximising the data output from both their wind tunnel and CFD. Therefore, the teams with the highest budgets always come out on top.

F1_CFD_2018_Car_Front
CREDIT: SimScale

With computing technology such as cores, clusters and chips continuously developing and fast, the CFD hardware used by the teams in 2017 was coming to the end of its life and was no longer supported by the chip manufacturers. Therefore, the FIA had to do something to allow the teams to upgrade, but without implementing a regulation that would force teams to upgrade to remain competitive. The target was to leave teams with a genuine choice of whether to continue with their old hardware or introduce new hardware.

Consequently, the 2018 regulations included some drastic changes and of course, it didn’t take teams long to find the loop holes, exploit them and cause further headaches for the FIA.

Find out more:

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