Confederation Brazil Basketball (Basketball) (Basketball)
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The Official History of Basketball
|In 1891, the long, hard winter of Massachusetts made it impossible to practice outdoor sports. The few options for physical activities indoors were restricted to boring fitness classes, which encouraged some students. Then Luther Gullick Halsey, director of Springfield College, International College of the YMCA (ACM), called the Canadian teacher James Naismith, 30, and entrusted him with a mission: to think of some sort of game without violence stimulate their students during the winter, but that could also be performed in summer in open areas.||
Naismith with the team at the University of Kansas, where he coached for many years.
|After some meetings with other physical education teachers in the region, James Naismith came to think of quitting the mission. But his entrepreneurial spirit prevented. Reflecting enough, came to the conclusion that the game should have a fixed target, with some degree of difficulty. No doubt it should be played with a ball, bigger than football, which quicasse regularly. But the game could not be as aggressive as American football, to avoid conflicts among students, and should have a collective meaning. There was another problem: if the ball was thrown with the feet, the possibility of shock still exist. Naismith then decided that the game should be played with hands, but the ball could not be retained for a long time and not be hit with a closed fist, to prevent accidental punches in bid disputes.
's next concern was the teacher as the target you should be struck by the ball. Imagined first put it on the floor, but there were other sports as well as hockey and football. The solution came in a flash: the target should stay the 3.5m tall, which imagined that no defender could stop the ball that was thrown at the target. Such height also gave a degree of difficulty to the game, as Naismith wanted from the beginning.
But what would be the best place to set the target? How would it be? Finding the caretaker of the college, Naismith asked if he did not have two boxes with an opening of about 8 square inches (45.72 cm). The caretaker was the deposit and returned with two old peach baskets. With a hammer and some nails, Naismith arrested the baskets on top of two pillars, he thought he had more than 3.0m, one on each side of the gym. Measured the height. Exact 3.05m, this height that remains today. Was born the basketball hoop.
J ames quickly Naismith wrote the first rules of the sport, containing 13 items. They were so clear in his head that were written down in less than an hour. The creative teacher brought to class rules, posting them on one of the bulletin boards of the gym. Told his students that he had a new game and began to explain the instructions and organize teams.
H avia 18 students in class. Naismith selected two captains (Eugene Libby and Duncan Patton) and asked them to choose sides of the court and his teammates. Chose two of the most senior players and threw the ball up high. It was the beginning of the first basketball game. Curious, however, is that neither students nor Naismith took care to record this data, so we can not say precisely on what day the first basketball game was held. It is only known that it was in December 1891, just before Christmas.
C omo expected, the first game was marked by many faults, which were punished by placing its author on the sideline of the court until the next basket was made. Another limitation concerned the basket itself: every time a pitch was converted, a player had to climb up the basket to catch the ball. The solution, some months later, was to cut the base of the basket, allowing the rapid continuation of the game.
Gym Armory Hill, site of the first game
of basketball official.
|The post approval of the board of Springfield College, the first official match of the newly created sport was held in the gym Armory Hill, on March 11, 1892, in which students beat the teachers by the score 5-1, in the presence about 200 people.
The first basketball was made by AC Spalding & Brothers, of Chicopee Falls (Massachusetts) yet in 1891, and its diameter was slightly bigger than a football. Early bottomless baskets were designed by Lew Allen, Connecticut in 1892, and consisted of wooden cylinders with metal rim. The following year, the Machine & Co. Narraganset had the idea of making a metal ring with a net hanging on it, which had the bottom tied with a rope but could be opened simply by pulling the latter. Soon after, this rope was abolished and the ball happened to fall freely after converting the pitches. In 1895, the tables were officially introduced. Naismith could not imagine the extent of the success of the sport they invented. His moment of glory came when basketball was included in the Berlin Olympics in 1936, and he threw the ball high to who started the first game of basketball in the Olympics. Currently, the sport is practiced by over 300 million people in worldwide in more than 170 countries affiliated to FIBA.